AICPA – Intermediate Financial Accounting读书笔记

Interest Capitalization (利息资本化)

利息资本化指企业通过债务融资手段筹集PPE资金后,将部分/全部利息以资产形式计入PPE账目下,而不是计入费用的会计处理手段。

在GAAP里,PPE的历史成本需包含对应资产在到达可使用状态前所必要发生的所有成本,包含债务利息。

计息期间,认定利息资本化区间的三个必要条件是:
1. 购置开销已经发生
2. 购置资产已经处于交付的过程中
3. 购置资产对应的债务在计息过程中

Cost Subsequent to Acquisition (交付后成本)

购置资产的交付后成本的资本化需要满足下列三条件之一:
1. 资产的使用期限被延长
2. 资产的生产能力有提升
3. 资产的生产质量有提升

交付后成本的产生有以下几个分类:
1. Additions
2. Improvements and Replacements
3. Rearrangement and Reinstallation
4. Repaires

Depreciation Methods

  1. Activity Method (units of use or production)
  2. Straight-line method
  3. Decreasing charge methods (accelerated):

Straight-line method

  1. Depreciation charge is based on the historical cost on book.

Decreasing charge method
1. Depreciation charge is based on the asset account balance.

调整固定资产折旧的方法和折旧期限对财报净利润有很大的影响

Intangible Asset

  1. Lack physical existence
  2. They are not financial instruments

Asset Impairment

  1. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable (through future economic benefits, ie, expected future net cash flow from the use of asset and eventual disposal)

Current Liability

  1. Obligations whose liquidation is reasonably expected to require use of existing resources properly classified as current assets, or the creation of other current liabilities.

Current Liability

Special treatment:
A company should classify as current any liability that is due on demand (callable by the creditor) or will be due on demand within a year (or operating cycle, if longer)

Refinancing Criteria:
1. It must intend to refinance the obligation on a long-term basis
2. It must demonstrate an ability to consummate the refinancing.

Compensated Absences

Recognition for Accural:
1. The employer's obligation relating to employees' rights to receive compensation for future absenses is attributable to the employees' services already rendered.
2. The obligation relates to the rights that vest or accumulate
3. Payment of the compensation is probable
4. The amount can be reasonably estimated.

Contingency

A contingency is "an existing codition, situation, or set of circumstances involving uncertainty as to possible gain (gain contingency) or loss (loss contingency) to an enterprise that will ultimately be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur.